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BD-Live At Valhalla                                    829982-158048    DPP-0007

BD-The Truth Is Hard                                 829982-172464     DPP-0008

BD-Tales From Wreck Deck                    829982-175113     DPP-0009

BD-Big Dik Covers                                    8299982-204783   DPP-0021

BD-More Big Dik Covers                          829982-215420     DPP-0028

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PD-More Live At Valhalla                            829982-186898     DPP-0019

PD-Never Said I Love You                           829982-202024     DPP-0020

PD-Triple New Years Live at Valhalla          829982-205476    DPP-0022

PD-Triple St Patricks Day Live At Valhalla   829982-213822   DPP-0023

PD-More St Patricks Day Live At Valhalla    829982-213839   DPP-0024

PD-Triple Christmas Live At Valhalla           829982-213808   DPP-0025

PD-More Christmas Live At Valhalla           829982-213815     DPP-0026

PD-More Live At Valhalla Complete             829982-203205     DPP-0019

PD-Double Live At Valhalla Complete           829982-215390    DPP-0033

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PD-Darkness You Can Make It             829982-215376    DPP-0034

TR-The Rash                                            829982-175779     DPP-0010

TR-At The End of The Line                     829982-182869     DPP-0013

TR-Deceived Me                                       829982-182876     DPP-0014

TR-I Will Not Move                                  829982-184764     DPP-0015

TR-Midnight Pain Train                          829982-184757     DPP-0016

TR-Don’t Hog The Covers                      829982-185860     DPP-0017

TR-Hold My Covers                                829982-185877     DPP-0018

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Like I said before you know Big Dik has to say something about the current COVID-19 crisis. I just want to say if Big Dik is the only one who could see this coming we’re all in deep shit!! Big Dik has been warning about this since 2015. Please see below. We obviously need to regain control of the food supply because farming everything is obviously way too dangerous and the consequences are way too serious. We have to stop stripping everything and get back to nature as our Man-Made world is one disaster after another culminating a mass extinction event that has encapsulated many species including our own species, Homo Sapiens, because of mans hyper greed and never ending consumptionism.

These people have obviously lost their minds as they don’t understand we human beings are actually a species called Homo Sapiens. We now face a Man-Made Mass species extinction event that is so fucked up. Man will be the first species ever to cause their own and hundreds of other species extinction at the same time in the history of the planet!! Yikes!

 

These guys have gone mad and tried to kill everything so they could strip the planet for things like shiny rocks, paper and fossil fuels etc. - Please see below for all the background and bad news.

 

The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the sixth mass extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is an ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch (with the more recent time sometimes called Anthropocene) as a result of human activity.[3][4][5][6] The included extinctions span numerous families of bacteria, fungi, plants[7][8][9] and animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. With widespread degradation of highly biodiverse habitats such as coral reefs and rainforests, as well as other areas, the vast majority of these extinctions are thought to be undocumented, as the species are undiscovered at the time of their extinction, or no one has yet discovered their extinction. The current rate of extinction of species is estimated at 100 to 1,000 times higher than natural background extinction rates.[4][10][11][12][13][14]

The Holocene extinction includes the disappearance of large land animals known as megafauna, starting at the end of the last glacial period. Megafauna outside of the African mainland, which did not evolve alongside humans, proved highly sensitive to the introduction of new predation, and many died out shortly after early humans began spreading and hunting across the Earth;[15][16] many African species have also gone extinct in the Holocene, but – with few exceptions – megafauna of the mainland was largely unaffected until a few hundred years ago.[17] These extinctions, occurring near the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, are sometimes referred to as the Quaternary extinction event.

The most popular theory is that human overhunting of species added to existing stress conditions as the extinction coincides with human emergence. Although there is debate regarding how much human predation affected their decline, certain population declines have been directly correlated with human activity, such as the extinction events of New Zealand and Hawaii. Aside from humans, climate change may have been a driving factor in the megafaunal extinctions, especially at the end of the Pleistocene.

Ecologically, humanity has been noted as an unprecedented "global superpredator"-Aha-Yikes! BD- that consistently preys on the adults of other apex predators, and has worldwide effects on food webs. There have been extinctions of species on every land mass and in every ocean: there are many famous examples within Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, North and South America, and on smaller islands. Overall, the Holocene extinction can be linked to the human impact on the environment. The Holocene extinction continues into the 21st century, with meat consumption being a primary driver of the mass extinction,[24] and deforestation,[3] overfishing, -Aha-Yikes! BD- ocean acidification, the destruction of wetlands,[25] and the decline in amphibian populations[26] being a few broader examples of global biodiversity loss. Human population growth and increasing per capita consumption are considered to be the primary drivers of this decline.[14][27][28][29]

The Holocene extinction is also known as the "sixth extinction", as it is possibly the sixth mass extinction event, after the Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, the Late Devonian extinction, the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, and the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[3][5][27][30][31][32] Mass extinctions are characterized by the loss of at least 75% of species within a geologically short period of time.[33][34] There is no general agreement on where the Holocene, or anthropogenic, extinction begins, and the Quaternary extinction event, which includes climate change resulting in the end of the last ice age, ends, or if they should be considered separate events at all.[35][36] Some have suggested that anthropogenic extinctions may have begun as early as when the first modern humans spread out of Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago; this is supported by rapid megafaunal extinction following recent human colonisation in Australia, New Zealand and Madagascar,[30] as might be expected when any large, adaptable predator (invasive species) moves into a new ecosystem. In many cases, it is suggested that even minimal hunting pressure was enough to wipe out large fauna, particularly on geographically isolated islands.[37][38] Only during the most recent parts of the extinction have plants also suffered large losses.[39]

In The Future of Life (2002), Edward Osborne Wilson of Harvard calculated that, if the current rate of human disruption of the biosphere continues, one-half of Earth's higher life forms will be extinct by 2100. A 1998 poll conducted by the American Museum of Natural History found that 70% of biologists acknowledge an ongoing anthropogenic extinction event.[40] At present, the rate of extinction of species is estimated at 100 to 1,000 times higher than the background extinction rate, the historically typical rate of extinction (in terms of the natural evolution of the planet);[10][11][41] also, the current rate of extinction is 10 to 100 times higher than in any of the previous mass extinctions in the history of Earth. One scientist estimates the current extinction rate may be 10,000 times the background extinction rate, although most scientists predict a much lower extinction rate than this outlying estimate.[42] Theoretical ecologist Stuart Pimm stated that the extinction rate for plants is 100 times higher than normal.[43]

In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails led to the conclusion that 7% of all species on Earth may have been lost already.[44][45] A 2021 study published in the journal Frontiers in Forests and Global Change found that only around 3% of the planet's terrestrial surface is ecologically and faunally intact, meaning areas with healthy populations of native animal species and little to no human footprint.[46][47]

We are currently, in a systematic manner, exterminating all non-human living beings.-—Anne Larigauderie, IPBES executive secretary[48] -Aha-Yikes! BD-

There is widespread consensus among scientists that human activity is accelerating the extinction of many animal species through the destruction of habitats, the consumption of animals as resources, and the elimination of species that humans view as threats or competitors.[49] That humans have become the primary driver of modern extinctions is undeniable, rapidly rising extinction trends impacting numerous animal groups including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have prompted scientists to declare a biodiversity crisis.[50] The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, published by the United Nations' Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, posits that roughly one million species of plants and animals face extinction within decades as the result of human actions. -Aha-Yikes! BD-  Organized human existence is jeopardized by increasingly rapid destruction of the systems that support life on Earth, according to the report, the result of one of the most comprehensive studies of the health of the planet ever conducted.[54] Moreover, the 2021 Economics of Biodiversity review, published by the UK government, asserts that "biodiversity is declining faster than at any time in human history."[55][56]

Some contend that this biotic destruction has yet to reach the level of the previous five mass extinctions,[57] and that this comparison downplays how severe the first five mass extinctions were.[58] Stuart Pimm, for example, asserts that the sixth mass extinction "is something that hasn't happened yet – we are on the edge of it."[59] John Briggs argues that there is no way near enough data to determine the real rate of extinctions, and shows that estimates of current species extinctions varies enormously, ranging from 1.5 to 40’000 species going extinct due to human activities each year.[60] Both papers from Barnosky et al. (2011) and Hull et al. (2015) point out that the real rate of extinction during previous mass extinctions is unknown, both as only some organisms leave fossil remains, and as the temporal resolution of the fossil layer is larger than the time frame of the extinction events.[33][61] However, all these authors agree that there is a modern biodiversity crisis with population declines affecting numerous species, and that a future anthropogenic mass extinction event is a big risk. The 2011 study by Barnosky et al. confirms that "current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record" and adds that anthropogenic ecological stressors, including climate change, habitat fragmentation, pollution, overfishing,-Aha-Yikes! BD- overhunting, invasive species -Aha Like Atlantic Farmed Salmon-Yikes! BD- and expanding human biomass will intensify and accelerate extinction rates in the future without significant mitigation efforts.[33]

Other studies posit that the earth has entered a sixth mass extinction event,[5][26][27][62] including a 2015 paper by Barnosky et al.[31] and a November 2017 statement titled "World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice", led by eight authors and signed by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries which asserted that, among other things, "we have unleashed a mass extinction event, the sixth in roughly 540 million years, wherein many current life forms could be annihilated or at least committed to extinction by the end of this century."[3] The World Wide Fund for Nature's 2020 Living Planet Report says that wildlife populations have declined by 68% since 1970 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, which is further evidence that humans have unleashed a sixth mass extinction event; however, this finding has been disputed by one 2020 study, which posits that this major decline was primarily driven by a few extreme outlier populations, and that when these outliers are removed, the trend shifts to that of a decline between the 1980s and 2000s, but a roughly positive trend after 2000.[63][64][65][66] A 2021 report in Frontiers in Conservation Science which cites both of the aforementioned studies, says "population sizes of vertebrate species that have been monitored across years have declined by an average of 68% over the last five decades, with certain population clusters in extreme decline, thus presaging the imminent extinction of their species," and asserts "that we are already on the path of a sixth major extinction is now scientifically undeniable."[67] A 2022 study published in Biological Reviews builds upon previous studies documenting biodiversity decline to assert that a sixth mass extinction event caused by anthropogenic activity is currently underway.[6][68]

According to the UNDP's 2020 Human Development Report, The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene:

The planet's biodiversity is plunging, with a quarter of species facing extinction, many within decades. Numerous experts believe we are living through, or on the cusp of, a mass species extinction event, the sixth in the history of the planet and the first to be caused by a single organism—us.[69]- -Aha-Yikes! BD-

 

In The Future of Life (2002), Edward Osborne Wilson of Harvard calculated that, if the current rate of human disruption of the biosphere continues, one-half of Earth's higher life forms will be extinct by 2100. A 1998 poll conducted by the American Museum of Natural History found that 70% of biologists acknowledge an ongoing anthropogenic extinction event.[40] At present, the rate of extinction of species is estimated at 100 to 1,000 times higher than the background extinction rate, the historically typical rate of extinction (in terms of the natural evolution of the planet);[10][11][41] also, the current rate of extinction is 10 to 100 times higher than in any of the previous mass extinctions in the history of Earth. One scientist estimates the current extinction rate may be 10,000 times the background extinction rate, although most scientists predict a much lower extinction rate than this outlying estimate.[42] Theoretical ecologist Stuart Pimm stated that the extinction rate for plants is 100 times higher than normal.[43]

The abundance of species extinctions considered anthropogenic, or due to human activity, has sometimes (especially when referring to hypothesized future events) been collectively called the "Anthropocene extinction".[49][70][71] Anthropocene is a term introduced in 2000.[72][73] Some now postulate that a new geological epoch has begun, with the most abrupt and widespread extinction of species since the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.[30]

The term "anthropocene" is being used more frequently by scientists, and some commentators may refer to the current and projected future extinctions as part of a longer Holocene extinction.[74][75] The Holocene–Anthropocene boundary is contested, with some commentators asserting significant human influence on climate for much of what is normally regarded as the Holocene Epoch.[76] Other commentators place the Holocene–Anthropocene boundary at the industrial revolution and also say that "[formal adoption of this term in the near future will largely depend on its utility, particularly to earth scientists working on late Holocene successions."

 

Mass Extinction

BD’s Man-Made Current

Crisis

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In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails led to the conclusion that 7% of all species on Earth may have been lost already.[44][45] A 2021 study published in the journal Frontiers in Forests and Global Change found that only around 3% of the planet's terrestrial surface is ecologically and faunally intact, meaning areas with healthy populations of native animal species and little to no human footprint.[46][47]

We are currently, in a systematic manner, exterminating all non-human living beings.-—Anne Larigauderie, IPBES executive secretary[48] -Aha-Yikes! BD-

There is widespread consensus among scientists that human activity is accelerating the extinction of many animal species through the destruction of habitats, the consumption of animals as resources, and the elimination of species that humans view as threats or competitors.[49] That humans have become the primary driver of modern extinctions is undeniable, rapidly rising extinction trends impacting numerous animal groups including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have prompted scientists to declare a biodiversity crisis.[50] The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, published by the United Nations' Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, posits that roughly one million species of plants and animals face extinction within decades as the result of human actions. -Aha-Yikes! BD-  Organized human existence is jeopardized by increasingly rapid destruction of the systems that support life on Earth, according to the report, the result of one of the most comprehensive studies of the health of the planet ever conducted.[54] Moreover, the 2021 Economics of Biodiversity review, published by the UK government, asserts that "biodiversity is declining faster than at any time in human history."[55][56]

Some contend that this biotic destruction has yet to reach the level of the previous five mass extinctions,[57] and that this comparison downplays how severe the first five mass extinctions were.[58] Stuart Pimm, for example, asserts that the sixth mass extinction "is something that hasn't happened yet – we are on the edge of it."[59] John Briggs argues that there is no way near enough data to determine the real rate of extinctions, and shows that estimates of current species extinctions varies enormously, ranging from 1.5 to 40’000 species going extinct due to human activities each year.[60] Both papers from Barnosky et al. (2011) and Hull et al. (2015) point out that the real rate of extinction during previous mass extinctions is unknown, both as only some organisms leave fossil remains, and as the temporal resolution of the fossil layer is larger than the time frame of the extinction events.[33][61] However, all these authors agree that there is a modern biodiversity crisis with population declines affecting numerous species, and that a future anthropogenic mass extinction event is a big risk. The 2011 study by Barnosky et al. confirms that "current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record" and adds that anthropogenic ecological stressors, including climate change, habitat fragmentation, pollution, overfishing,-Aha-Yikes! BD- overhunting, invasive species -Aha Like Atlantic Farmed Salmon-Yikes! BD- and expanding human biomass will intensify and accelerate extinction rates in the future without significant mitigation efforts.[33]

Other studies posit that the earth has entered a sixth mass extinction event,[5][26][27][62] including a 2015 paper by Barnosky et al.[31] and a November 2017 statement titled "World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice", led by eight authors and signed by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries which asserted that, among other things, "we have unleashed a mass extinction event, the sixth in roughly 540 million years, wherein many current life forms could be annihilated or at least committed to extinction by the end of this century."[3] The World Wide Fund for Nature's 2020 Living Planet Report says that wildlife populations have declined by 68% since 1970 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, which is further evidence that humans have unleashed a sixth mass extinction event; however, this finding has been disputed by one 2020 study, which posits that this major decline was primarily driven by a few extreme outlier populations, and that when these outliers are removed, the trend shifts to that of a decline between the 1980s and 2000s, but a roughly positive trend after 2000.[63][64][65][66] A 2021 report in Frontiers in Conservation Science which cites both of the aforementioned studies, says "population sizes of vertebrate species that have been monitored across years have declined by an average of 68% over the last five decades, with certain population clusters in extreme decline, thus presaging the imminent extinction of their species," and asserts "that we are already on the path of a sixth major extinction is now scientifically undeniable."[67] A 2022 study published in Biological Reviews builds upon previous studies documenting biodiversity decline to assert that a sixth mass extinction event caused by anthropogenic activity is currently underway.[6][68]

According to the UNDP's 2020 Human Development Report, The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene:

The planet's biodiversity is plunging, with a quarter of species facing extinction, many within decades. Numerous experts believe we are living through, or on the cusp of, a mass species extinction event, the sixth in the history of the planet and the first to be caused by a single organism—us.[69]- -Aha-Yikes! BD-

 

The abundance of species extinctions considered anthropogenic, or due to human activity, has sometimes (especially when referring to hypothesized future events) been collectively called the "Anthropocene extinction".[49][70][71] Anthropocene is a term introduced in 2000.[72][73] Some now postulate that a new geological epoch has begun, with the most abrupt and widespread extinction of species since the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.[30]

The term "anthropocene" is being used more frequently by scientists, and some commentators may refer to the current and projected future extinctions as part of a longer Holocene extinction.[74][75] The Holocene–Anthropocene boundary is contested, with some commentators asserting significant human influence on climate for much of what is normally regarded as the Holocene Epoch.[76] Other commentators place the Holocene–Anthropocene boundary at the industrial revolution and also say that "[f]ormal adoption of this term in the near future will largely depend on its utility, particularly to earth scientists working on late Holocene successions."

It has been suggested that human activity has made the period starting from the mid-20th century different enough from the rest of the Holocene to consider it a new geological epoch, known as the Anthropocene,[77][78] a term which was considered for inclusion in the timeline of Earth's history by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2016.[79][80] In order to constitute the Holocene as an extinction event, scientists must determine exactly when anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions began to measurably alter natural atmospheric levels on a global scale, and when these alterations caused changes to global climate. Using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, researchers have estimated the fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) gases in the Earth's atmosphere during the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs.[76] Estimates of the fluctuations of these two gases in the atmosphere, using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, generally indicate that the peak of the Anthropocene occurred within the previous two centuries: typically beginning with the Industrial Revolution, when the highest greenhouse gas levels were recorded.[81][82]  -Aha-Yikes!-BD

The Holocene extinction is mainly caused by human activities.[5][14][32][49] Extinction of animals, plants, and other organisms caused by human actions may go as far back as the late Pleistocene, over 12,000 years ago.[49] There is a correlation between megafaunal extinction and the arrival of humans,[83][84][85] and contemporary human population size and growth, along with per-capita consumption growth, prominently in the past two centuries, are regarded as the underlying causes of extinction.[87]

Biomass of mammals on Earth as of 2018[88][89]

  Livestock, mostly cattle and pigs (60%)

  Humans (36%)

  Wild mammals (4%) -Aha-Yikes!-BD

Human civilization was founded on and grew from agriculture.[90] The more land used for farming, the greater the population a civilization could sustain,[76][90] and subsequent popularization of farming led to habitat conversion.[14]

Habitat destruction by humans, including in the ocean, such as through overfishing -Aha-Yikes!-BD and contamination; and the modification and destruction of vast tracts of land and river systems around the world to meet solely human-centered ends[neutrality is disputed] (with 13 percent of Earth's ice-free land surface now used as row-crop agricultural sites, 26 percent used as pastures, and 4 percent urban-industrial areas[91]), thus replacing the original local ecosystems.[92] The sustained conversion of biodiversity rich forests and wetlands into poorer fields and pastures (of lesser carrying capacity for wild species), over the last 10,000 years, has considerably reduced the Earth's carrying capacity for wild birds, among other organisms, in both population size and species count.[13][93][94]

Other, related human causes of the extinction event include deforestation, hunting, pollution,[95] the introduction in various regions of non-native species, -Aha-The diseased farmed Atlantic Salmon in  the Pacific Ocean-Yikes! BD-  and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.[11] Humans both create and destroy crop cultivar and domesticated animal varieties. Advances in transportation and industrial farming has led to monoculture and the extinction of many cultivars. The use of certain plants and animals for food has also resulted in their extinction, including silphium and the passenger pigeon.[96]

Some scholars assert that the emergence of capitalism -Aha-Yikes! BD- as the dominant economic system has accelerated ecological exploitation and destruction, and has also exacerbated mass species extinction.[97] CUNY professor David Harvey, for example, posits that the neoliberal era "happens to be the era of the fastest mass extinction of species in the Earth's recent history".[98]

Apex predator

Megafauna were once found on every continent of the world and large islands such as New Zealand and Madagascar, but are now almost exclusively found on the continent of Africa, with notable comparisons on Australia and the islands previously mentioned experiencing population crashes and trophic cascades shortly after the earliest human settlers.[37][38] It has been suggested that the African megafauna survived because they evolved alongside humans.[30] The timing of South American megafaunal extinction appears to precede human arrival, although the possibility that human activity at the time impacted the global climate enough to cause such an extinction has been suggested.[30]

It has been noted, in the face of such evidence, that humans are unique in ecology as an unprecedented "global superpredator"-Aha-Yikes! BD-, regularly preying on large numbers of fully grown terrestrial and marine apex predators, and with a great deal of influence over food webs and climatic systems worldwide.[18] Although significant debate exists as to how much human predation and indirect effects contributed to prehistoric extinctions, certain population crashes have been directly correlated with human arrival.[16][30][36][49] Human activity has been the main cause of mammalian extinctions since the Late Pleistocene.[50] A 2018 study published in PNAS found that since the dawn of human civilization, 83% of wild mammals, 80% of marine mammals, 50% of plants and 15% of fish have vanished. Currently, livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). As for birds, 70% are domesticated, such as poultry, whereas only 30% are wild.[88][89]

Agriculture and climate change

Recent investigations into the practice of landscape burning during the Neolithic Revolution has a major implication for the current debate about the timing of the Anthropocene and the role that humans may have played in the production of greenhouse gases prior to the Industrial Revolution.[90] Studies on early hunter-gatherers raises questions about the current use of population size or density as a proxy for the amount of land clearance and anthropogenic burning that took place in pre-industrial times.[99][100] Scientists have questioned the correlation between population size and early territorial alterations.[100] Ruddiman and Ellis' research paper in 2009 makes the case that early farmers involved in systems of agriculture used more land per capita than growers later in the Holocene, who intensified their labor to produce more food per unit of area (thus, per laborer); arguing that agricultural involvement in rice production implemented thousands of years ago by relatively small populations have created significant environmental impacts through large-scale means of deforestation.[90]

While a number of human-derived factors are recognized as contributing to rising atmospheric concentrations of CH4 (methane) and CO2 (carbon dioxide), deforestation and territorial clearance practices associated with agricultural development may be contributing most to these concentrations globally.[81][90][101] Scientists that are employing a variance of archaeological and paleoecological data argue that the processes contributing to substantial human modification of the environment spanned many thousands of years ago on a global scale and thus, not originating as early as the Industrial Revolution. Gaining popularity on his uncommon hypothesis, palaeoclimatologist William Ruddiman in 2003, stipulated that in the early Holocene 11,000 years ago, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels fluctuated in a pattern which was different from the Pleistocene epoch before it.[76][99][101] He argued that the patterns of the significant decline of CO2 levels during the last ice age of the Pleistocene inversely correlates to the Holocene where there have been dramatic increases of CO2 around 8000 years ago and CH4 levels 3000 years after that.[101] The correlation between the decrease of CO2 in the Pleistocene and the increase of it during the Holocene implies that the causation of this spark of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere was the growth of human agriculture during the Holocene such as the anthropogenic expansion of (human) land use and irrigation.[76][101]

Islands

 

Recently extinct flightless birds include Madagascar's elephant bird, Mauritius's dodo and the great auk of the Atlantic.

 

Human arrival in the Caribbean around 6,000 years ago is correlated with the extinction of many species.[102] These include many different genera of ground and arboreal sloths across all islands. These sloths were generally smaller than those found on the South American continent. Megalocnus were the largest genus at up to 90 kilograms (200 lb), Acratocnus were medium-sized relatives of modern two-toed sloths endemic to Cuba, Imagocnus also of Cuba, Neocnus and many others.[103]

Recent research, based on archaeological and paleontological digs on 70 different Pacific islands, has shown that numerous species became extinct as people moved across the Pacific, starting 30,000 years ago in the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands.[104] It is currently estimated that among the bird species of the Pacific, some 2000 species have gone extinct since the arrival of humans, representing a 20% drop in the biodiversity of birds worldwide.[105]

 

Genyornis newtoni, a 2-metre (7 ft) tall flightless bird. Evidence of egg cooking in this species is the first evidence of megafaunal hunting by humans in Australia.[106]

The first human settlers of the Hawaiian islands are thought to have arrived between 300 and 800 CE, with European arrival in the 16th century. Hawaii is notable for its endemism of plants, birds, insects, mollusks and fish; 30% of its organisms are endemic. Many of its species are endangered or have gone extinct, primarily due to accidentally introduced species and livestock grazing. Over 40% of its bird species have gone extinct, and it is the location of 75% of extinctions in the United States.[107] Extinction has increased in Hawaii over the last 200 years and is relatively well documented, with extinctions among native snails used as estimates for global extinction rates.[44]

Australia

Main articles: Australian megafauna, List of extinct animals of Australia, and List of extinct flora of Australia

See also: Invasive species in Australia, Land clearing in Australia, and Fire-stick farming

Australia was once home to a large assemblage of megafauna, with many parallels to those found on the African continent today. Australia's fauna is characterised by primarily marsupial mammals, and many reptiles and birds, all existing as giant forms until recently. Humans arrived on the continent very early, about 50,000 years ago.[30] The extent human arrival contributed is controversial; climatic drying of Australia 40,000–60,000 years ago was an unlikely cause, as it was less severe in speed or magnitude than previous regional climate change which failed to kill off megafauna. Extinctions in Australia continued from original settlement until today in both plants and animals, whilst many more animals and plants have declined or are endangered.[108]

Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative to elsewhere.[109] However, continent-wide extinction of all genera weighing over 100 kilograms, and six of seven genera weighing between 45 and 100 kilograms occurred around 46,400 years ago (4,000 years after human arrival)[110] and the fact that megafauna survived until a later date on the island of Tasmania following the establishment of a land bridge[111] suggest direct hunting or anthropogenic ecosystem disruption such as fire-stick farming as likely causes. The first evidence of direct human predation leading to extinction in Australia was published in 2016.[106]

A 2021 study found that the rate of extinction of Australia's megafauna is rather unusual, with some generalistic species having gone extinct earlier while highly specialised ones having become extinct later or even still surviving today. A mosaic cause of extinction with different anthropogenic and environmental pressures has been proposed.[112]

Madagascar

Further information: Wildlife of Madagascar and Subfossil lemur

Radiocarbon dating of multiple subfossil specimens shows that now extinct giant lemurs were present in Madagascar until after human arrival.

Within 500 years of the arrival of humans between 2,500 and 2,000 years ago, nearly all of Madagascar's distinct, endemic and geographically isolated megafauna became extinct.[113] The largest animals, of more than 150 kilograms (330 lb), were extinct very shortly after the first human arrival, with large and medium-sized species dying out after prolonged hunting pressure from an expanding human population moving into more remote regions of the island around 1000 years ago. Smaller fauna experienced initial increases due to decreased competition, and then subsequent declines over the last 500 years.[38] All fauna weighing over 10 kilograms (22 lb) died out. The primary reasons for this are human hunting and habitat loss from early aridification, both of which persist and threaten Madagascar's remaining taxa today. needed]

The eight or more species of elephant birds, giant flightless ratites in the genera Aepyornis, Vorombe, and Mullerornis, are extinct from over-hunting,[114] as well as 17 species of lemur, known as giant, subfossil lemurs. Some of these lemurs typically weighed over 150 kilograms (330 lb), and fossils have provided evidence of human butchery on many species.[115]

New Zealand

Main article: List of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene

See also: Biodiversity of New Zealand, Timeline of the New Zealand environment, and Invasive species in New Zealand

New Zealand is characterised by its geographic isolation and island biogeography, and had been isolated from mainland Australia for 80 million years. It was the last large land mass to be colonised by humans. The arrival of Polynesian settlers circa 12th century resulted in the extinction of all of the islands' megafaunal birds within several hundred years.[116] The moa, large flightless ratites, became extinct within 200 years of the arrival of human settlers.[37] The Polynesians also introduced the Polynesian rat. This may have put some pressure on other birds but at the time of early European contact (18th century) and colonisation (19th century) the bird life was prolific. With them, the Europeans brought various invasive species including ship rats, possums, cats and mustelids which devastated native bird life, some of which had adapted flightlessness and ground nesting habits, and had no defensive behavior as a result of having no native mammalian predators. The kakapo, the world's biggest parrot, which is flightless, now only exists in managed breeding sanctuaries. New Zealand's national emblem, the kiwi, is on the endangered bird list.[116] -Aha-Yikes! BD-

Americas

Main articles: List of North American animals extinct in the Holocene and List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

 

Reconstructed woolly mammoth bone hut, based on finds in Mezhyrich.

 The passenger pigeon was a species of pigeon endemic to North America. It experienced a rapid decline in the late 1800s due to habitat destruction and intense hunting after the arrival of Europeans. The last wild bird is thought to have been shot in 1901.

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